22 January 2004, 02:53

Chronology

Around 1,8 million years ago - Primary settlement of the Caucasus

150-80 thousand years ago - people of Stone Age settle the Caucasus on a large scale

Around 40 thousand years ago - First traces of human habitation on the territory of land of Vainakhs. Establishment of a tribal system

6th millenium BC - First appearance of agrarian settlements in the Caucasus

5th-4th millenium BC - Appearance of copper-ware in the Caucasus

End of 4th - early 1st millenium  BC - Bronze Age in the Caucasus

9th-6th centuries BC - Urarty State

8th-7th centuries BC - Exploitation of iron

7th century BC - Invasion of Caucasus by Scythians

6th century BC - First mention of toponym "Caucasus" in written sources

End of 4th - early 3st centuries BC - Sarmatian tribes invade the Caucasus

End of 4th-3th centuries BC - Appearance and heyday of Iberian Kingdom. Vainakh-Durdzuks participate in political life of ancient Georgia

1st century AD - Joint campaigns of Sarmatian-Alan and Vainakh-Daghestani tribes, ofganized by rulers of Iberia

1st-2nd centuries - Ancient authors make mention of Gargarians, Isadiks and Khamekits as supposedly attributed to tribes of Vainakh stock

4th century - Huns invade the Caucasus

5th-6th centuries - Beginning of flourishing of tribal confederation headed by Alans. Emergence of early state formations in Daghestan

7th century - Vainakhs mentioned in "The Georgraphy of Armenia"

7th-9th centuries - Khazars' State

Mid 11th century - Appearance of Kipchaks in the North Caucasia

11th century - Leonti Mroveli describes ancient history of Vainakhs

12th - early 13th centuries - Part of North Caucasus population fall under Georgian rule. Appearance of Christian churches

1220-1222 - First appearance of Mongols in Caucasus

1237-1240 - Mongols occupy steppes and foothills of North Caucasus

13th-14th centuries - Vainakh tribes fight against Mongol invaders. First appearance of defence towers in the mountains

1395-1396 - Tamerlane invades North Caucasus

15th century - Vainakhs begin to settle in flat country

15th-16th centuries - Islam begins to spread among Vainakhs

15th-17th centuries - Prime of "tower architecture" in the land of vainakhs

Mid 16th century - First Russian (Cossack) settlements appear on the river Terek

1567 - Russians build first fortress on the Terek

16th-18th centuries - Vainakhs establish feudal relations

1722-1723 - Persian campaign of Peter I

1739 - Russians arrange Kizlyar Military Line. Start of struggle against Chechens to occupy the Chechen Plain

1758 - General Frauendorf carries on a campaign against Chechens

1760 - First ofganizer of North Caucasians liberation movement against tsarist colonialists Ushurma (Sheikh Mansur) was born (d. after 1791)

1768-1774 - Russian-Ottoman War. Tsarist forces attack the Chechens

1784 - laying of Vladikavkaz Fortress

1785 - Liberation movement of North Caucasian. Mountain peoples under Mansur against tsarist Russia. Caucasian War starts

1791 - Mansur captured

1797 - Imam of Daghestan and Chechnya, leader of mountain peoples in the Caucasian War, Shamil was born (d. in 1871)

1801 - Eastern Gerogia secedes to the Russian Empire

1810 - Treaty of Vladikavkaz: Ingushetia voluntarily joins Russia

1816 - P. Zakharov - Chechen (artist, member of Rassian Academy of Arts) was born (d. in 1846)

1816-1827 - Activity of General Ermolov on post of Commander-in-Chief of Russian Forces in the Caucasus, civil Governor of Georgia and Astrakhan and Caucasian provinces

1817 - Russian troops attack the Chechens

1817-1823 - Conquest of the Chechen Plain and arrangement of the Sunzha Fortified Line

1818 - Foundation of Grozny Fortress

1822 - Riot in Chechnya

1825-1826 - Revolt of Chechens under Beibulat

1826 - Ermolov conducts campaign against Chechens. Battle on the Arghun

1827 - Chechen ethnographer Umalat Laudaev was born

1829 - North Caucasians start liberation war under the banner of Muridism

1831 - Beibulat Killed

1832 - General Rosen organizes a campaign against Chechnya and Ingushetia

1834-1859 - Imamate of Shamil

1839 - General Grabble attacks Daghestan. Siege and capture of Ahulgo

1840 - Political centre of Imamate shifted to Chechnya

1840-1841 - Russian troops undertake punitive expeditions in Chechnya

July 11, 1840 - Battle of Valerik

1842 - General Grabble defeated in the forests of Ichkeria

1843 - Russia forces defeated in Daghestan

1845 - Failure of Vorontsov in the mountains of Daghestan and Chechnya

1846 - Shamil leads a forey in Kabarda

Mid 19th century - Lachinilau makes an attempt to create Chechen written language

1850 - Ingush writer and enlightener Chakh Akhriev was born (d. in 1914)

1852 - Ingush writer and enlightener Aslambek Bazorkin was born (d. in 1890)

1854 - Shamil organizes a campaign against Georgia

1858 - Uprising of Ingushes

February 1859 - Russians captured Vedeno, the capital of Imamate

August 26, 1859 - Seizure of Mt. Gunib by the Russians. Shamil captured

1860- Terski Region formed

1860-1861 - partisan War in Chechnya

January 1864 - Appearance of Kunta Khadji's follwers. The Shalli manslaughter

May 21, 1864 - Resistence of highlanders in West Caucasus suppressed. Official date of the end of Caucasian War

1869 - Fortress Grozny becomes town of Grozny

1877 - Popular uprising in Daghestan and Chechnya against colonial oppression

1882 - A prominent Chechen political figure Abdul-Medjid (Tapa) Chermoev was born (d. in 1936)

1893 - Industrial exploitation of oil in Grozny district

1900 - Appear publications written in Chechen alphabet created on the basis of Arabic graphic symbols

1905-1907 - First Russian revolution

1910 - A prominent figure of Chechen national-liberation movement Khasan Israilov was born (d. in 1942)

1914-1918 - World War I

February 27, 1917 - February Revolution in Russia. Overthrow of autocracy

March 1917 - First Congress of Mountain Peoples held in Vladikavkaz. The Union of United Mountain Peopels of the Caucasus established

October 25 (November 7) 1917 - October Revolution in Russia. Seizure of power by the party of Bolsheviks

May 11, 1918 - Mountain Republic declares independence

1919-1920 - Military operations against the troops of General Denikin. North Caucasian emirate of Usun-Khadji

1920 - Ingush linguist Z. Malsagov creates Ingush alphabet based on Latin graphic symbols

March 1920 - The Red Detachments marched into Grozny. Soviet power proclaimed in Chechnya and Ingushetia

November 17, 1920 - Gorsky (Mountain) Autonomous Republic comprising Chechnya and Ingushetia formed within the part of Soviet Russia

1922 - Autonomous of Chechnya established

1922-1924, 1925, 1929-1930, 1933-1934, 1937-1939, 1940-1942 - Anti-Soviet revolts in Chechnya and Ingushetia. Punitive expeditions of the Red Army against Vainakh rebels

1924 - Ingush Autonomous Oblast established

1934 - Autonomous oblast of Chechen-Ingushetia formed. Common Chechen-Ingush alphabet on the basis of Latin graphic sumbols approved

1936 - Autonomous Oblast of Chechen-Ingushetia elevated to autonomous republic status

1938 - Chechen-Ingush Pedagogical Institute opened. Chechen-Ingush written language altered, now based on Russian alphabet

1939-1945 - World War II

February 1940 - People's meeting in Galanchozh (South Chechnya) declares the establishment of insurrectional Provisional National - Revolutionary Government of Chechen-Ingushetia headed by H. Israilov

June 22, 1941 - German-Soviet War starts

February 1944 - Forced deportation of Chechen and Ingush peoples to Central Asia

March 7, 1944 - Supreme Soviet of the USSR abolishes ASSR of Chechen-Ingushetia

1944-1956 - Armed resistance of Vainakh groups sheltered in the mountains of Chechen-Ingushetia

January 9, 1957 - By Decree of Presidium of the USSr Supreme Soviet Chechen-Ingush ASSR restored. Vainakhs go back to their motherland

November 1990 - First Chechen National Congress: Executive Committee of All-National Congress of Chechen People (ANCCP) elected. Johar Dudaev became the leader of Committee

September 1991 - Power in Chechenya transfers to the Executive Committee ANCCP

September 15, 1991 - Extraordinary Congress of Ingush People's Deputies declares Republic of Ingushetia

October 27, 1991 - Johar Dudaev elected President

November 9, 1991 - Unsuccessful attempt of Federal Centre to control the situation in Chechenya by force

June 4, 1992 - Supreme Soviet of Russian Federation issues "On Formation of Ingush Republic within Russian Federation"July 7, 1992 - Russian troops withdraw Chechnya

October 31-November 4, 1992 - Bloody skirmish in Prigorodny District. Ingushes exiled from North Ossetia

February 28, 1993 - Ruslan Aushev elected President of Ingushetia

November 26, 1994 - Unsuccessful action of the Chechen opposition, inspired by Federal Centre

November 29, 1994 - President Eltsin addresses the participants of armed conflict in Chechnya to seize fire and disband all armed formations

December 11, 1994 - Invasion of Russian into Chechnya. "First Chechen War" starts

December 31, 1994 - Assault on the capital of Chechnya

March 1995 - Russian troops take the control of Grozny

May 13, 1995 - large-scale attack of Federal Forces in southern districts of Chechnya

June 14, 1995 - Shamil Basaev's raid on Budyonovsk

April 22, 1996 - Dudaev killed by a Russian rocket

April 23, 1997 - Zelimkhan Yandarbiev becomes President of Chechen Republic

August 5-6, 1996 - Chechen forces take the control of Grozny

August 12, 1996 - Beginning of negotiations between Alexander Lebed, special representative of Russian Federation, and Aslan Maskhadov, Commander of Chechen Armed Forces Staff

August 12, 1996 - End of negotiations between Alexander Lebed and Aslan Maskhadov: parties succeeded in declaring the principles of relations between Russian Federation and Republic of Chechenya

November 22, 1996 - According to Yeltsin's Decree Russian forces leave Chechenya

November 26, 1996 - Prime-Minister of Russian Federation V. Chernomyrdin and Head of Chechen Government A. Maskhadov sign "Temporal Treaty of Principal Relations between Russian Federation and Republic of Cechnya"

January 1997 - Aslan Maskhadov elected President of Chechen Republic Ichkeria

May 12, 1997 - Aslan Maskhadov meets President of Russia B. Yeltsin. They sign treaty of peace and principles of relations between Russian Federation and Chechen Republic Ichkeria

August 2, 1999 - Detachments of Chechen-Daghestan opposition penetrate into Western Daghestan. Armed actions against the federal forces in Daghestan start

October 1, 1999 - "Second Chechen War" starts

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