22 January 2004, 02:53


Around 1,8 million years ago - Primary settlement of the Caucasus

150-80 thousand years ago - people of Stone Age settle the Caucasus on a large scale

Around 40 thousand years ago - First traces of human habitation on the territory of land of Vainakhs. Establishment of a tribal system

6th millenium BC - First appearance of agrarian settlements in the Caucasus

5th-4th millenium BC - Appearance of copper-ware in the Caucasus

End of 4th - early 1st millenium  BC - Bronze Age in the Caucasus

9th-6th centuries BC - Urarty State

8th-7th centuries BC - Exploitation of iron

7th century BC - Invasion of Caucasus by Scythians

6th century BC - First mention of toponym "Caucasus" in written sources

End of 4th - early 3st centuries BC - Sarmatian tribes invade the Caucasus

End of 4th-3th centuries BC - Appearance and heyday of Iberian Kingdom. Vainakh-Durdzuks participate in political life of ancient Georgia

1st century AD - Joint campaigns of Sarmatian-Alan and Vainakh-Daghestani tribes, ofganized by rulers of Iberia

1st-2nd centuries - Ancient authors make mention of Gargarians, Isadiks and Khamekits as supposedly attributed to tribes of Vainakh stock

4th century - Huns invade the Caucasus

5th-6th centuries - Beginning of flourishing of tribal confederation headed by Alans. Emergence of early state formations in Daghestan

7th century - Vainakhs mentioned in "The Georgraphy of Armenia"

7th-9th centuries - Khazars' State

Mid 11th century - Appearance of Kipchaks in the North Caucasia

11th century - Leonti Mroveli describes ancient history of Vainakhs

12th - early 13th centuries - Part of North Caucasus population fall under Georgian rule. Appearance of Christian churches

1220-1222 - First appearance of Mongols in Caucasus

1237-1240 - Mongols occupy steppes and foothills of North Caucasus

13th-14th centuries - Vainakh tribes fight against Mongol invaders. First appearance of defence towers in the mountains

1395-1396 - Tamerlane invades North Caucasus

15th century - Vainakhs begin to settle in flat country

15th-16th centuries - Islam begins to spread among Vainakhs

15th-17th centuries - Prime of "tower architecture" in the land of vainakhs

Mid 16th century - First Russian (Cossack) settlements appear on the river Terek

1567 - Russians build first fortress on the Terek

16th-18th centuries - Vainakhs establish feudal relations

1722-1723 - Persian campaign of Peter I

1739 - Russians arrange Kizlyar Military Line. Start of struggle against Chechens to occupy the Chechen Plain

1758 - General Frauendorf carries on a campaign against Chechens

1760 - First ofganizer of North Caucasians liberation movement against tsarist colonialists Ushurma (Sheikh Mansur) was born (d. after 1791)

1768-1774 - Russian-Ottoman War. Tsarist forces attack the Chechens

1784 - laying of Vladikavkaz Fortress

1785 - Liberation movement of North Caucasian. Mountain peoples under Mansur against tsarist Russia. Caucasian War starts

1791 - Mansur captured

1797 - Imam of Daghestan and Chechnya, leader of mountain peoples in the Caucasian War, Shamil was born (d. in 1871)

1801 - Eastern Gerogia secedes to the Russian Empire

1810 - Treaty of Vladikavkaz: Ingushetia voluntarily joins Russia

1816 - P. Zakharov - Chechen (artist, member of Rassian Academy of Arts) was born (d. in 1846)

1816-1827 - Activity of General Ermolov on post of Commander-in-Chief of Russian Forces in the Caucasus, civil Governor of Georgia and Astrakhan and Caucasian provinces

1817 - Russian troops attack the Chechens

1817-1823 - Conquest of the Chechen Plain and arrangement of the Sunzha Fortified Line

1818 - Foundation of Grozny Fortress

1822 - Riot in Chechnya

1825-1826 - Revolt of Chechens under Beibulat

1826 - Ermolov conducts campaign against Chechens. Battle on the Arghun

1827 - Chechen ethnographer Umalat Laudaev was born

1829 - North Caucasians start liberation war under the banner of Muridism

1831 - Beibulat Killed

1832 - General Rosen organizes a campaign against Chechnya and Ingushetia

1834-1859 - Imamate of Shamil

1839 - General Grabble attacks Daghestan. Siege and capture of Ahulgo

1840 - Political centre of Imamate shifted to Chechnya

1840-1841 - Russian troops undertake punitive expeditions in Chechnya

July 11, 1840 - Battle of Valerik

1842 - General Grabble defeated in the forests of Ichkeria

1843 - Russia forces defeated in Daghestan

1845 - Failure of Vorontsov in the mountains of Daghestan and Chechnya

1846 - Shamil leads a forey in Kabarda

Mid 19th century - Lachinilau makes an attempt to create Chechen written language

1850 - Ingush writer and enlightener Chakh Akhriev was born (d. in 1914)

1852 - Ingush writer and enlightener Aslambek Bazorkin was born (d. in 1890)

1854 - Shamil organizes a campaign against Georgia

1858 - Uprising of Ingushes

February 1859 - Russians captured Vedeno, the capital of Imamate

August 26, 1859 - Seizure of Mt. Gunib by the Russians. Shamil captured

1860- Terski Region formed

1860-1861 - partisan War in Chechnya

January 1864 - Appearance of Kunta Khadji's follwers. The Shalli manslaughter

May 21, 1864 - Resistence of highlanders in West Caucasus suppressed. Official date of the end of Caucasian War

1869 - Fortress Grozny becomes town of Grozny

1877 - Popular uprising in Daghestan and Chechnya against colonial oppression

1882 - A prominent Chechen political figure Abdul-Medjid (Tapa) Chermoev was born (d. in 1936)

1893 - Industrial exploitation of oil in Grozny district

1900 - Appear publications written in Chechen alphabet created on the basis of Arabic graphic symbols

1905-1907 - First Russian revolution

1910 - A prominent figure of Chechen national-liberation movement Khasan Israilov was born (d. in 1942)

1914-1918 - World War I

February 27, 1917 - February Revolution in Russia. Overthrow of autocracy

March 1917 - First Congress of Mountain Peoples held in Vladikavkaz. The Union of United Mountain Peopels of the Caucasus established

October 25 (November 7) 1917 - October Revolution in Russia. Seizure of power by the party of Bolsheviks

May 11, 1918 - Mountain Republic declares independence

1919-1920 - Military operations against the troops of General Denikin. North Caucasian emirate of Usun-Khadji

1920 - Ingush linguist Z. Malsagov creates Ingush alphabet based on Latin graphic symbols

March 1920 - The Red Detachments marched into Grozny. Soviet power proclaimed in Chechnya and Ingushetia

November 17, 1920 - Gorsky (Mountain) Autonomous Republic comprising Chechnya and Ingushetia formed within the part of Soviet Russia

1922 - Autonomous of Chechnya established

1922-1924, 1925, 1929-1930, 1933-1934, 1937-1939, 1940-1942 - Anti-Soviet revolts in Chechnya and Ingushetia. Punitive expeditions of the Red Army against Vainakh rebels

1924 - Ingush Autonomous Oblast established

1934 - Autonomous oblast of Chechen-Ingushetia formed. Common Chechen-Ingush alphabet on the basis of Latin graphic sumbols approved

1936 - Autonomous Oblast of Chechen-Ingushetia elevated to autonomous republic status

1938 - Chechen-Ingush Pedagogical Institute opened. Chechen-Ingush written language altered, now based on Russian alphabet

1939-1945 - World War II

February 1940 - People's meeting in Galanchozh (South Chechnya) declares the establishment of insurrectional Provisional National - Revolutionary Government of Chechen-Ingushetia headed by H. Israilov

June 22, 1941 - German-Soviet War starts

February 1944 - Forced deportation of Chechen and Ingush peoples to Central Asia

March 7, 1944 - Supreme Soviet of the USSR abolishes ASSR of Chechen-Ingushetia

1944-1956 - Armed resistance of Vainakh groups sheltered in the mountains of Chechen-Ingushetia

January 9, 1957 - By Decree of Presidium of the USSr Supreme Soviet Chechen-Ingush ASSR restored. Vainakhs go back to their motherland

November 1990 - First Chechen National Congress: Executive Committee of All-National Congress of Chechen People (ANCCP) elected. Johar Dudaev became the leader of Committee

September 1991 - Power in Chechenya transfers to the Executive Committee ANCCP

September 15, 1991 - Extraordinary Congress of Ingush People's Deputies declares Republic of Ingushetia

October 27, 1991 - Johar Dudaev elected President

November 9, 1991 - Unsuccessful attempt of Federal Centre to control the situation in Chechenya by force

June 4, 1992 - Supreme Soviet of Russian Federation issues "On Formation of Ingush Republic within Russian Federation"July 7, 1992 - Russian troops withdraw Chechnya

October 31-November 4, 1992 - Bloody skirmish in Prigorodny District. Ingushes exiled from North Ossetia

February 28, 1993 - Ruslan Aushev elected President of Ingushetia

November 26, 1994 - Unsuccessful action of the Chechen opposition, inspired by Federal Centre

November 29, 1994 - President Eltsin addresses the participants of armed conflict in Chechnya to seize fire and disband all armed formations

December 11, 1994 - Invasion of Russian into Chechnya. "First Chechen War" starts

December 31, 1994 - Assault on the capital of Chechnya

March 1995 - Russian troops take the control of Grozny

May 13, 1995 - large-scale attack of Federal Forces in southern districts of Chechnya

June 14, 1995 - Shamil Basaev's raid on Budyonovsk

April 22, 1996 - Dudaev killed by a Russian rocket

April 23, 1997 - Zelimkhan Yandarbiev becomes President of Chechen Republic

August 5-6, 1996 - Chechen forces take the control of Grozny

August 12, 1996 - Beginning of negotiations between Alexander Lebed, special representative of Russian Federation, and Aslan Maskhadov, Commander of Chechen Armed Forces Staff

August 12, 1996 - End of negotiations between Alexander Lebed and Aslan Maskhadov: parties succeeded in declaring the principles of relations between Russian Federation and Republic of Chechenya

November 22, 1996 - According to Yeltsin's Decree Russian forces leave Chechenya

November 26, 1996 - Prime-Minister of Russian Federation V. Chernomyrdin and Head of Chechen Government A. Maskhadov sign "Temporal Treaty of Principal Relations between Russian Federation and Republic of Cechnya"

January 1997 - Aslan Maskhadov elected President of Chechen Republic Ichkeria

May 12, 1997 - Aslan Maskhadov meets President of Russia B. Yeltsin. They sign treaty of peace and principles of relations between Russian Federation and Chechen Republic Ichkeria

August 2, 1999 - Detachments of Chechen-Daghestan opposition penetrate into Western Daghestan. Armed actions against the federal forces in Daghestan start

October 1, 1999 - "Second Chechen War" starts

All news

December 03, 2020 16:37

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December 03, 2020 10:36

  • Kashatag residents give details of their exodus

    The signing of the agreement, according to which the Kashatag (Lachin) District of Nagorno-Karabakh passes over to Azerbaijan, was quite a surprise for local residents. After the mass exodus, forced migrants found refuge with their relatives. They have admitted that the resettlement problem was mostly on their shoulders.

December 03, 2020 10:35

December 03, 2020 10:26

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