20 May 2003, 04:18

Chkhenkeli, Akaky Ivanovich

Politician, one of the leaders of Georgian Mensheviks.

Born in 1874, in the city of Khoni, Kutais Province. From a family of a nobleman. Studied in Kutais gimnasia and Kiev University, finalized his education in Berlin and London. Was a lawyer and a literature expert. Was in social democrat movement since 1898 and a Menshevik since 1903. Worked in the party press in Tiflis. Was a participant of the 1905-1907 Revolution. During the reaction years, was a "liquidator". In 1911, was exiled outside the Caucasus area. Returned to Batum without permission on the eve of the Fourth State Duma Election; was arrested, but being elected a deputy of the State Duma, was discharged. In the Duma, supported cultural and national self-determination. During the WWI, was a "defender".

After the February Revolution of 1917, as a State Duma deputy, was appointed a member of the Special Transcaucasian Committee (OZAKOM), where occupied the position of Internal Administration Commissar. At the First All-Russian Congress of the Councils of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies in June 1917, was elected a member of All-Russian Central Executive Committee. On July 27, 1917, signed OZAKOM's address regarding the prohibition of the land expropriation by the peasants without permission; on August 4, issued a decree on collecting duties from the peasants; on August 9, issued a decree on protecting the landed classes' interests when solving their arguments with peasants. At the Menshevik and United social democrat organizations in August 1917, was elected a member of the Central Committee of the united RSDRP (Russian Social Democrat Workers' Party). In September 1917, headed the work of the Georgian National Parties' Conference, where the idea of Transcaucasian Sejm was first put forward.

After the October Revolution, issued a decree on October 28, 1917, granting the provincial, regional, and county commissars a right to carry out arrests due to the strengthening revolutionary movement. At the creation of Transcaucasian commissariat on November 15, was appointed a commissar for the Ministry of Interior. On November 20, ordered Kutais provincial commissar to undertake resolute measures against Sharapansky county peasant who refused to pay the rent. On November 26, was elected a deputy chairman of the National Council of Georgia, was in charge of two commissions: for local administration and for the affairs of the Muslims of Georgia. Was elected a member of the Constituent Assembly from the Transcaucasian constituency. On December 22, 1917, as a commissar for the Ministry of Interior, ordered to suppress the revolutionary movement in Kutais province.

On February 14, 1918, A.I. Chkhenkeli formed a government of Transcaucasian Federative Democratic Republic (ZFDR), where he occupied the positions of the chairman of the Council of Ministers and the Minister of Foreign Affairs. In this position, Chkhenkeli headed ZFDR's delegation in the peace negotiations with Germany and Turkey in Trapezund and Batum. After ZFDR's collapse, Act of Georgia's Independence was declared at Chkhenkeli's suggestion. Since May 25, Chkhenkeli joined the government of Georgian Democratic Republic as a Minister of Foreign Affairs. Was the head of Georgia's delegation at the negotiations with Abkhazian People's Council on the issue of Abkhazia's joining Georgia with the preservation of its complete internal autonomy. At the peace negotiations with Turkey on May 28, 1918, signed a treaty on Germany's monopoly on Georgia's natural resources' exploitation. On September 8, 1918, A.I. Chkhenkeli was nominated for an award with Germany's supreme military order for the help to the German occupation bodies. On January 9, 1920, was present at the meeting of the Council of Five (Entente), where he promised to provide 50,000 soldiers against the Bolsheviks. In March 1921, emigrated and continued the struggle against the soviet power.

Akaky Ivanovich Chkhenkeli deceased in Paris in 1959.

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