14 May 2003, 14:28
Ordzhonikidze, Grigoriy (Sergo) Konstantinovich
Party nickname: Sergo.
Politician and statesman, revolutionary.
Born October 12, 1886, in the village of Goresha, Sharapansky County, Kutaisi Province. Descendant of ruined noblemen. In 1898, graduated from two-class Belogorskoye (Kharagoulskoye) College. In 1901, entered the medical assistant school in Tiflis, was a member of students' social democratic circle. In 1903, joined RSDRP (Russian Socialist Democratic Workers' Party), was a Bolshevik. In 1905, graduated from the medical assistant school and worked in Western Georgia being a member of the Sukhumi Committee of RSDRP. Was repeatedly arrested. In 1907, became a member of Baku Committee of RSDRP. In 1908, was exiled for "permanent dwelling" to Enisei Province. In 1909, escaped the exile and led revolutionary work in Baku. In the fall of 1909, was sent to Persia by RSDRP's Baku Committee to provide assistance to the rebels of Iranian Anti-feudal and Anti-Imperialistic Revolution 1905-1911. Stayed in permanent contact with RSDRP's Baku Committee and cooperated with Bolshevik press. In 1911, was a student at Lenin's Party School in Longjumeau, Paris area. In July thru September 1911, was one of the leaders of the Russian Organizational Commission on convocation of the Sixth Party Conference. In January 1912, was a delegate of the Sixth Russian Conference of RSDRP in Prague, was elected the member of the Central Committee and Russian Bureau of the Central Committee of RSDRP. In April 1912, was arrested in St. Petersburg and sentenced to three years of penal servitude; served his term in Schlisselburg fortress. In October 1915, was exiled to Yakutia.
After the February Revolution of 1917, on March 3, was elected a member of the Revolutionary Committee of Yakutsk, then the Commissar of the Public Security Committee. Was one of the leaders of RSDRP's Yakutsk Committee and Executive Committee of the Worker and Soldier Deputies' Council. Participated in organizing and conducting the first congress of Yakuts and Russian peasants, which adopted a decision on the nationalization of the land, and a regional congress of doctors and medical assistants. In June 1917, returned to Petrograd, where continued his revolutionary activities in plants and in military units. In July and August 1917, visited Lenin and G.E. Zinovyev in Razliv near Petrograd and informed them on the situation with the Party's affairs. Was a delegate of the Sixth RSDRP(b)'s Congress (July 26 - August 3, 1917) from Petrograd cell. After the congress, spoke at multiple meetings with the reports on its decisions. In late August, was sent to Transcaucasia for providing help to Bolshevik organizations: conducted work in Baku, Tiflis, Erivani, and Kutaisi Provinces. At RSDRP(b)'s Central Committee's appeal, returned to Petrograd on October 24, 1917. Took active part in the October Revolution and in the battles against Krasnov's troops, led propaganda activities. At RSDRP(b)'s Central Committee's meeting on November 29, 1917, was commanded under Y.M. Sverdlov's supervision for the representation in regional and frontline congresses.
On December 19, 1917, according to a decision by Central Committee of RSDRP(b) and Council of People's Commissars, was appointed Interim Extraordinary Commissar of the region of the Ukraine with a goal of uniting all Soviet organizations around the pan-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee for dealing with political, military, alimentary, and banking issues. In January and February 1918, gave special attention to sending bread to the industrial cities of central Russia suffering from famine. In March 1918, dealt with creating a single front of defense of the Crimea, Donbass, and southern provinces of RSFSR to fight German occupants. On March 16, by a decree issued by Council of People's Commissars, was given authority for taking extraordinary measures in order to evacuate into the country's interior the alimentary and other cargoes from the regions potentially subject to German occupation. On April 9, 1918, by a decree issued by the Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR, G.K. Ordzhonikidze was given a task to organize and head an Interim Commissariat of Southern Region, uniting the Crimea, Don and Terek Regions, Black Sea Province, the entire Northern Caucasus, and the Black Sea Fleet. Since April 6 until 14, 1918, participated in the work of the First Congress of the Soviets of Don Soviet Republic, in Rostov-on-Don; in his speech, he emphasized, "The Council of People's Commissars believed that the working-class Cossacks will not oppose the power of the Soviets, and in this, the Council of People's Commissars and all working-class Russia have not been mistaken... At present, there are two tasks before us: to repulse the attack of the western European predators and to build a new life inside the Soviet Republic. I would like us to go together in this struggle..." (Quoted by: Ordzhonikidze G.K. Articles and Speeches. Volume 1. Moscow, 1956, pp. 33-34). At this Congress, he was elected a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviets of Don Soviet Republic. On May 2, 1918, Sergo Ordzhonikidze, within a delegation of Don Republic, negotiated with the German commandment in Taganrog on the issue of a ceasefire. In May, was one of the organizers of defense of the Kuban, Tsaritsyn, and Don Republic. On May 28 thru 30, 1918, participated in the work of the Third Extraordinary Congress of the Soviets of the Kuban and Black Sea Republic in Ekaterinodar, during which a united Kuban - Black Sea Soviet Republic was created. In June, organized bread deliveries to Baku Commune from Stavropol and Terek Regions. On June 3, spoke at the meeting of the Bolshevik faction in the Central Executive Committee of Don Republic in Tsaritsyn with a report on the work of the Central Executive Committee and suggested to relocate the residence of the Don government into the limits of Don Region for daily administration on-site. Participated in forming the red Cossack units.
Following the RSFSR People's Commissars Council's directive dated June 14 on immediate ceasefire in the Soviet-German front, G.K. Ordzhonikidze conducted the negotiations in summer of 1918 and achieved signing a treaty with the German commandment on setting up a demarcation line between the German and the soviet troops. In the speech at the First North-Caucasian Congress of the Soviets in Ekaterinodar on July 5, 1918, Ordzhonikidze grounded the necessity for signing the Brest Treaty with Germany. "At the present moment, we are against the war, because we don't have an army, don't have provisions, don't have roads, and don't have a government apparatus at all... We should not commit a crime t the people and send them to fight a German armed to his teeth..." (Quoted by: ibid, p. 39). On July 6, performed a report about the unification of all the regions of the Northern Caucasus into a single republic saying, "The Soviets will be the links that are to tie together the free workers, peasants, Cossacks, and highlanders. The interests of the entire nation are telling the Northern Caucasus to merge and to extend a helping hand to the proletariat of the rest of Russia." (Quoted by: ibid, p. 40). North-Caucasian Soviet Republic was formed at the Congress. Upon the completion of the Congress's work, Ordzhonikidze left for the Terek area, where the Cossacks raised an anti-Soviet revolt.
In 1919, Sergo Ordzhonikidze was a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the 16th Army of the West Front, later - of the 14th Army of the South Front; was one of the leaders of Denikin's troops' defeat in Oryol area and liberation of Donbass, Kharkov, and the Left-Bank Ukraine. In 1920, G.K. Ordzhonikidze was a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Caucasus Front, the chairman of the North-Caucasian Revolutionary Committee, and the Chairman of the Bureau for reinstating the Soviet power in North Caucasus. Since April 1920, was a chairman of the Caucasian Bureau of the Central Committee of RKP(b) (Russian Communist Party of the Bolsheviks), was an active participant of the Soviet power establishing in Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia. In 1922-1926, occupied the positions of the first secretary of the Party's Transcaucasian Regional Committee and the first secretary of the North-Caucasian Regional Committee of VKP(b) (All-Union Communist Party of the Bolsheviks). In 1926-1930, Ordzhonikidze was a chairman of the Central Komsomol Committee of VKP(b) and People's Commissar of the Regional Committee, the deputy chairman of the People's Commissars' Council of the USSR; since 1924, was a member of the Revolutionary Supreme Council of the USSR. In November 1930, was appointed the chairman of the Supreme Council for Economy and became the People's Commissar for Heavy Industry of the USSR. Played an important role in conducting the industrialization of the USSR.
Grigory Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze was elected the delegate of the 11th through 17th Congresses of VKP(b). In 1921-1926 and since 1930, was a member of the Central Committee, and since December 1930, was a member of the Politics Bureau of the Central Committee of the VKP(b). Also, was a member of the All-Union Central Executive Committee and Central Executive Committee of the USSR. Was awarded several orders.
In the circumstances of mass repression, not wishing to share the responsibility for I.V. Stalin and his adherents' crimes, G.K. Ordzhonikidze committed a suicide on February 18, 1937. Buried in the Red Square near the Kremlin Wall.
Articles and Speeches. Volumes 1 & 2. Moscow, 1956-1957.